Planning for Graduate and
Many science-, math- and technology-based careers require
education beyond a bachelor’s degree. This section
provides links to a variety of sites that will help
you develop a pathway to graduate or professional school.
DEVELOPING YOUR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
How to Get Research Experience
So, you are convinced of the value of research
experience to your graduate school application. Now
Frequently Asked Questions about Experiential
Though this site is specific to an institution,
it provides helpful information.
Benefits of Undergraduate Research
Undergraduate research provides our brightest
and most talented undergraduate students in all fields
and disciplines with a glimpse of the excitement of sustained
academic inquiry into important intellectual questions.
It is something that we as a Research I university ought
to be doing for our campus, our community, our state,
and our country.
Getting Started with Undergraduate Research
Undergraduate research is an evolving experience
students may participate throughout their years at MU.
Students aren't required to begin during their freshman
year, but they are encouraged to begin exploring the possibilities.
A good list of undergraduate research journals.
Mentor Expectations and Student Responsibilities
in Undergraduate Research
Though this article provides insight from a
professor's perspective, it might provide you with some
Undergraduate Research Highlights
These links highlight undergraduate research.
Directories of Research at Primarily Undergraduate
The Directory series is produced to make known
the extent of excellence of research by faculty and
students at primarily undergraduate institutions across
the country. The Directories are an invaluable resource
containing detailed quantitative information about faculty,
facilities, departmental grants, number of students
involved in research, and number of majors. The professional
activities of faculty members are summarized: publications
in refereed journals, books, and individual grants.
Currently six of CUR's eight divisions produce a directory
of research. The Directories are separated into four,
alphabetically searchable sections that include: departmental
listings by school, institution index, faculty index,
and specialty index.
Welcome to the Online Ethics Center
for Engineering and Science
Our mission is to provide engineers, scientists,
and science and engineering students with resources for
understanding and addressing ethically significant problems
that arise in their work, and to serve those who are promoting
learning and advancing the understanding of responsible
research and practice in science and engineering.
On Being A Scientist: Responsible
Conduct in Research
This booklet makes the point that scientific knowledge
is defined collectively through discussion and debate.
Collective deliberation is also the best procedure to
apply in using this booklet. Group discussion—whether
in seminars, orientations, research settings, or informal
settings—can demonstrate how different individuals
would react in specific situations, often leading to conclusions
that no one would have arrived at individually.
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory
Proper care, use, and humane treatment of animals used
in research, testing, and education (referred to in this
Guide as animal care and use) require scientific and professional
judgment based on knowledge of the needs of the animals
and the special requirements of the research, testing,
and educational programs. The guidelines in this section
are intended to aid in developing institutional policies
governing the care and use of animals.
Ethical Guidelines to Publication
of Chemical Research
The American Chemical Society serves the chemistry profession
and society at large in many ways, among them by publishing
journals which present the results of scientific and engineering
research. Every editor of a Society journal has the responsibility
to establish and maintain guidelines for selecting and
accepting papers submitted to that journal. In the main,
these guidelines derive from the Society’s definition
of the scope of the journal and from the editor’s
perception of standards of quality for scientific work
and its presentation. An essential feature of a profession
is the acceptance by its members of a code that outlines
desirable behavior and specifies obligations of members
to each other and to the public.
Avoiding Misconduct in Your Scientific
Most beginning scientists set out to follow the highest
ethical standards in their work and, in most cases, doing
so is not a problem. Yet, as every experienced researcher
knows, there will be times when knowing and doing the
"right thing" are not as easy as they sound.
Integrity in Scientific Research
Challenging scientists - students, fellows, technicians,
and administrators - to define ethical problems, identify
options for responding, and to assess those options in
light of their own experiences
The Office of Research Integrity
The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) promotes integrity
in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the
U. S. Public Health Service (PHS) at about 4,000 institutions
worldwide. ORI monitors institutional investigations of
research misconduct and facilitates the responsible conduct
of research through educational, preventive, and regulatory
activities. Organizationally, ORI is located in the Office
of Public Health and Science (OPHS), within the Office
of the Secretary of Health and Human Services (OS), in
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Science Ethics Online Resources
Links to helpful resources.
Policy on Humane Care and Use of
The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
(AALAS) endorses the United States Government Principles
for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used
in Testing, Research, and Training, and requires that
all papers published in our journal Contemporary Topics
in Laboratory Animal Science report research conducted
in conformance with these principles. Research for papers
submitted from outside the United States must be in conformance
with the guidelines of that country's government.
ABOUT GRADUATE SCHOOL
Suggestions for the Student Considering
Advanced Study in Chemistry
Welcome to the world of professional chemistry. This brochure
is designed to serve you as a guide and resource if you
are considering graduate work in chemistry or related
disciplines, such as biochemistry or other biological
sciences, chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and medicinal
chemistry, toxicology, materials science, chemical physics,
and the environmental sciences. A person with solid and
broad graduate training in chemistry is prepared to take
advantage of a wide variety of professional opportunities
in industry, academia, government laboratories, and research
Planning for Graduate School
Approximately one third of biology students enter graduate
school upon graduation.Are You Ready? Selecting and
Evaluating Graduate Programs How to Apply Graduate Admission
Tests Dates Search Specific Graduate Programs
Applying to Graduate School
Graduate school provides an opportunity to specialize
in an academic discipline or a specific profession. Graduate
degrees are available in almost any subject and come in
three levels - Master, Specialist and Doctorate. The program
length for each program varies depending on the graduate
school program and degree level desired.
Considering Graduate School?
Answer These Five Questions Before You Decide
Deciding to seek one or more graduate degrees is a major
commitment of time and money; a decision not to take
lightly. You will face several years of intense work
and research -- a much more demanding course load than
in your undergraduate program. Before deciding your
next step, you should take the time to honestly answer
these five questions.
Step by Step Graduate School Preparation
A neat interactive chart to help you plan for graduate
A Student Planning Guide to Grad
School and Beyond
One theme of this guide is that those studying science
and engineering need more information about planning careers
than is readily available to them. You need to know more
about resources, about what your predecessors have done,
and about how to match your own skills and personality
to a given career.
Master’s or Ph.D.?
Did you know that it’s possible to go straight for
your Ph.D. without getting your master’s first?
Many students don’t, but depending on your field,
it could be a viable option that saves you time, money,
Getting Into Graduate School
Interesting articles for students considering graduate
Graduate School Information
These links provide graduate school information, by
Assessing Your Graduate School Competency
This checklist can help you determine if graduate school
is for you.
Navigating the Graduate School Experience
Many of you have already decided whether to pursue graduate
studies. Either you are currently enrolled in a graduate
program or you have decided to do so soon. (Note: If
you fall into the latter group, do not allow soon, to
become a long time from now.) If you have not yet decided
to enroll, you should be reminded that regardless of
your post-baccalaureate dream, today's equation for
success requires training and education beyond the bachelor's
degree. The following article will not only explain
the graduate school application process, it will explore
the political nature of successfully navigating the
graduate school experience. Prospective graduate students
will gain insights from the entire article while current
and former graduate students will certainly recognize,
relate, and learn from the latter half of this article.
Thinking About Graduate School
Attending graduate or professional school may be an
option you are seriously considering. If so, your decision
should be based on careful reflection and clarification
of your work/life goals. The decision to attend graduate
school is a very personal one, and the reasons to enroll
may vary from individual to individual. This handout
outlines some important considerations you may contemplate
as you make your decision, along with information on
researching and evaluating graduate schools/programs
and completing the application process.
This link provides you with a catalog of resource information.
ABOUT DENTAL SCHOOL
Planning for Dental School
Candidates for dental school need to recognize
that the requirements are very school-specific and thus
the candidate must do significant "up front"
research. The Pre-Health Professions Adviser can assist
you if you need help interpreting the information you
Why Do You Want to Be a Dentist?
Do you really want to be a dentist? Career Services
and SU natural science faculty can advise you about the
process for applying to dental school, but only you can
decide if that’s what you really want to do. One
way to explore your interests is to volunteer at a dentist’s
office locally or in your hometown. Another way is to
read information about dental schools and dentistry as
a career. Be sure to join the SU Pre-Dental Society or
any other health-related organizations.
Information for Predental Students
There are approximately 56 dental schools in
the United States, and students typically apply to about
eight schools. It is important that students plan their
coursework to satisfy prerequisites for many dental
schools. Fortunately, this is not difficult to do. The
plan below identifies the science coursework that will
satisfy the requirements for application to nearly all
56 U.S. dental schools.
Planning Your Search
The trick to assessing your chances of getting
into a particular program is knowing where you stand with
regard to the various factors that programs consider when
making admissions decisions.
How Dental School Works
If you have ever considered becoming a dentist,
I would like to help you to understand everything that
is involved. My name is Dr. Jerry Gordon and I am a practicing
dentist. Dentistry is a career that I truly enjoy and
would recommend to others. However, many people greatly
underestimate the time that must be invested in order
to become a dentist, the difficulty of those years, and
the high cost of educating a dentist. After reading this
article you will completely understand the process as
well as the commitment involved!
Dental School Admissions
Thinking about dental school? Surf here for information
on dental careers (there's a wider range than you think!),
how to get into dental school, the application process,
and how to make it through dental school.
A Guide for Students Applying
to Medical or Dental Schoolf Science
Students thinking about a career in medicine
or dentistry have special needs. To help you prepare
for medical or dental school, we have prepared this
section, complete with admissions and application information,
how to select schools, and sample interview questions.
THINKING ABOUT MEDICAL
Are you considering medical school but are unsure what
you should be doing? Visit the AAMC web site and view
their timeline. Make sure you are on track!!!!
Postbaccalaureate Premedical Programs
Many individuals pursue medical careers after receipt
of a Bachelor's degree. Frequently, additional science
courses and labs are required before they are prepared
to apply to medical school. Therefore, a number of schools
now offer postbaccalaureate premedical programs. This
searchable database contains information on each program's
length, size, purpose, structure, cost, admissions requirements,
and other characteristics.
AAMC Postbacc Programs' Searchable Database
A database is now available to the public.
The URL for the post-bacc program searchable database
Web page is http://services.aamc.org/postbac/index.cfm.
To get to this site from the AAMC public Web page,
go to http://www.aamc.org/students/considering/start.htm
and click on More under the Postbaccalaureate Programs
paragraph (right column).
The PreMed Zone
ABOUT OPTOMETRY SCHOOL
Frequently Asked Questions
Eye Care Professions
The eye care professions have become more highly
regarded as eye health continues to becomes more important.
Optometrists, Ophthalmologists and Opticians are the main
types of eye care professions. Each serves an important
role and provides somewhat different services but all
have one role in common- to assist all their patients
with the best eye care in order see their best.This includes
eye examinations, routine checkups, eyeglass frame selection
and fitting, eye surgery, and much more. Each profession
requires different educational requirements.
ABOUT PHARMACY SCHOOL
Well, you're in luck! With advances in science,
technology, and medicine growing by leaps and bounds,
it's a great time to join this growing profession. Most
pharmacy programs accept students for their Pharm.D. degree
once they've completed at least 2 years of undergraduate
study, but in reality, you'll probably have to finish
3, or even have your bachelor's degree before you can
get in to most programs. There are some colleges, on the
other hand, that accept students to their pre-pharmacy
or pharmacy programs directly from high school.
Preparing for Pharmacy School
Generally, a pharmacy degree requires four academic
years of study. The first two years usually cover the
basic sciences and the last two years, pharmacy theory
and practice. At the completion of the curriculum, students
are awarded a Pharm.D. degree (Doctor of Pharmacy).
Prepharmacy Predictors of Success in Pharmacy School:
Grade Point Averages, Pharmacy College Admissions Test,
Communication Abilities, and Critical Thinking Skills
Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying
successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters
have been shown to have predictive power for academic
success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College
Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses
have been suggested as academic performance indicators.
However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated.
Thinking of going to Pharmacy
Here are some links.
Veterinary schools do not require or recommend any particular
undergraduate major course of study. Cornell does not
have a preveterinary major or formalized academic program.
There is no evidence that admissions committees of veterinary
colleges give special consideration to any particular
undergraduate education beyond satisfactory completion
of the required undergraduate courses; for this reason
you are encouraged to pursue your own intellectual interest
in an academic major.
We have compiled an article from questions many people
and students have asked us about the becoming a veterinarian
and being a vet.
Choosing the Right Veterinarian
Once you have made the decision to pursue a career in
veterinary medicine, you'll want to start thinking about
what veterinary school you would like to attend. It is
not important that you know what school you want to go
to when you begin your first year at F&M. However,
by the beginning of the second semester during your junior
year, you should have already started to research the
various veterinary schools that you would consider applying
Frequently Asked Questions for
What are veterinary schools looking for? There are many
more people interested in veterinary school than there
are places available.
Working With Animals
Many of us who love animals would also love to have a
career working with them. Maybe your interest lies in
dog training, becoming a veterinarian, or working with
wildlife. Perhaps you want to know what it takes to become
a veterinary technician or assistant.
SUCCEEDING IN GRADUATE SCHOOL
National Association of Graduate-Professional
NAGPS is the acronym for the National Association
of Graduate-Professional Students. We are the umbrella
group for over two million graduate and professional
students currently studying in the United States. NAGPS
acts as a clearinghouse for graduate and professional
student organizations, serves as an advocacy group for
graduate-professional student needs and rights at all
levels, addresses a broad range of issues via our national
committees (international student concerns, human diversity
concerns, legislative concerns, and employment concerns),
and much more! Every fall, NAGPS hosts a national conference,
and every spring, NAGPS member schools meet at regional
conferences. Please contact us at (202)543-0812 or at
firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions!
What Every New Grad Student Should Know
This is a list of pointers to documents which hopefully
will take some of the mystery away from the transition
between college and graduate work. Also included is
some basic information about the networks and things
that it's just plain a good idea to know to make your
life a bit easier.
How to Be a Good Graduate Student
This paper attempts to raise some issues that are important
for graduate students to be successful and to get as
much out of the process as possible, and for advisors
who wish to help their students be successful. The intent
is not to provide prescriptive advice -- no formulas
for finishing a thesis or twelve-step programs for becoming
a better advisor are given -- but to raise awareness
on both sides of the advisor-student relationship as
to what the expectations are and should be for this
relationship, what a graduate student should expect
to accomplish, common problems, and where to go if the
advisor is not forthcoming.
Professional Development Resources
for Graduate Students
Professional development begins the day you start graduate
school. In addition to taking courses, conducting scholarly
research, and teaching for the first time, you should
be learning about the demands and responsibilities of
becoming a professional scholar. This means getting
involved in your discipline's discourse, whether by
attending conferences, giving papers at professional
conferences, serving on departmental and university
committees, or preparing works for publication. It means,
in short, becoming a colleague and not just a student.
We've outlined some of the main aspects of the process
of professional development. Your advisor, teachers,
and other graduate students can also be an invaluable
source of advice on how to negotiate this process. We
encourage you to ask for their advice as well.
Learning the Lingo
Just because graduate students have been around academe
awhile doesn't mean they all understand the lingo of the
faculty job market. In fact, we get a lot of questions
from readers about words or phrases that are so commonly
used in academe that people may hesitate to ask colleagues
what they actually mean. In this month's column, we offer
a glossary of those terms and phrases, with a little commentary
thrown in where we couldn't resist.
Considering a Non-Academic Career?
You're not alone. Today an increasing number of graduate
students are opting for careers outside of academia. For
some, the academic job market has necessitated considering
other career possibilities. Others have made a decision
to seek work outside academia for a variety of personal
and professional reasons. The key is to find work to which
you are drawn and for which you are suited. We encourage
you to use the resources and ideas in this section to
The 5 'Virtues' of Successful Graduate
"It doesn't matter where you earn your degree, how
much you publish, or how well you teach," I tell
my students who are going to graduate school. "Nothing
you do is enough to guarantee a tenure-track job in the
Surviving The First Year Of Graduate School
It was a black Monday. After a terrific weekend partying
with friends, I woke up late, missed my usual bus, and
arrived at the lab 40 minutes late. Still unable to get
into the working mood, I was dilly-dallying at my desk,
flipping over my notes as my laboratory's research officer
shouted over the partial partition of my study cubicle,
"Lynn! Lynn! Get your stuff ready! The boss has been
looking for you!"
Survive and Thrive
I was a couple of years into my graduate program in physics
when I first heard the question that would eventually
become a central part of my professional philosophy. My
wife and I were sharing a Love Boat of sushi with two
friends, Monica and Bill (not their real names) (probably).
As usual, I was bitching about the stresses of grad school.
Then Dick, an eye surgeon who had recently sold a multimillion-dollar
pre-LASIK practice because he was burned out, asked me,
"If you don't enjoy it, why are you doing it?"
Take Charge of Your Ph.D. Training
If you are a student finishing your master's degree and
starting Ph.D. studies, you will soon encounter the challenges
that face most science students during the transition.
Chief among these challenges is learning how to think
and act like an independent scientist. This article highlights
my personal experiences at this crucial point in my academic
STEP - Ph.D.
The "Ph.D. Resources" have been created
to help doctoral students not just survive but
thrive in graduate school and beyond. We have
expanded the older version of these pages, formerly
posted as "Ph.D. Career Resources," into two
sites in order to cover in more detail the resources
students need while "Obtaining a Ph.D."
and as they set about "Obtaining Employment."
We hope to get the information on these sites into the
hands of as many students as possible. Please
feel free to link to us and pass on these resources.
We welcome your feedback; please contact
us if you have any additional suggestions.